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黑金剛花生的種植2-施肥

施肥過量,有失有得,施錯肥,有去無回.
黑金剛花生,種植並沒有一定標準流程.
有人肥施在溝底(厚工),有人用噴肥機施肥(省工),有人飽果期用水肥,
有人一分地施了40公斤複合肥,,,,,,,
每個人都會依自己的經驗,但是目的只有一個,"高產".
但是結局一定不同,因為大家都是經驗法則,沒有人會去測一下PH 值,
有人長得很好,有人爛莢很多.
肥料業者一定希望農民多施一點肥,問題是肥料的用量,
施過了臨界點,剛好跟收成成反比..而且是拋物線式下掉..
到底一分地花生要施多少肥,施什麼肥.何時施肥,
這些細節都影響著產量.
我覺得花生如果都不給它施肥,它上面也會長得很好,因為它自己有根瘤菌固氮,
下面就不一定了….如果長很多果莢,勢必要很多養份,光靠葉子跟根瘤菌一定不夠用.
肥不夠,毗果會很多.
這時施肥就是一種科學,細膩一點的是種藝術.
花生成長約略有三時期,花針期,結莢期,飽果期.
施肥方法百種,雲林種花生大都跟水稻輪作,
水稻已經施了很多肥,花生不大需施肥,否則會太肥.
我的方法是施用有機肥打底,後續視形況決定追肥否,
花生重鈣肥,缺鈣會空莢,偏偏雲林地區土地屬石灰岩沖積,
好像從來不缺鈣離子,這就是為何花生雲林種最多的原因.有些農友種到變空莢,我猜應該是肥施太多,造成鈣吸收困難.
施肥法應該有2種.1.打基肥. 2.不打基肥.
1.打基肥法 : 施大量有機肥,視情況不追施化肥或施少量化肥.有機質多寡,跟產量成正比,
進入飽果期施葉面肥.
2.不打基肥法 : 這是大多農民使用的方法(台灣的尿素全世界最便宜),因為花生屬短期作物,農民習慣用化肥較快速,有效率.
但缺點是,化肥施多了,土壤微生物快速增生,除了吃掉有機質外,壞菌繁殖快速,
果莢會爛掉,果莢黑斑病白絹病容易系統性危害.
若不打基肥,苗期是否追加尿素有兩種說法.
其一是說,因為根瘤菌尚未形成,氮肥要靠土壤供應,故要薄施尿素.
其二是,為讓根瘤菌大量形成,故苗期不施尿素,太早施尿素造成根瘤菌較弱.
我想應該視前期作物是什來決定.前期種豆科作物,不要再施尿素了.苗期施點尿素,對花芽分化搞不好有正面效果.
追肥時機點,若不打基肥,為使花一次開,開很多,果針一次釘下去,在始花期追一次肥有其必要.用43號肥薄施,一分地5~20公斤,灌溉後應該效果不錯.
第二個追肥點,封行前,巧施結莢肥,4號肥是不錯的選擇,但是台肥四號顆粒較大,若用噴施,掉落到果夾附近會造成果莢黑點,要施於溝底,但是很厚工,可以選擇顆粒較小的高磷鉀肥用噴施的,較省工.我們這裡都用興農的"天龍5號肥",也都收得不錯,雖然五號肥理論上較不適合,但是理論歸理論啊..
飽果期,不再施肥,葉片開始老化,根部吸收效率也較不好,葉面肥保根顧葉,延長葉子的光合作用期,讓花生飽果.台肥活力2號加一點高磷鉀葉面肥噴施.
tips:老一輩的經驗,採收前一兩周,略施尿素,據說果莢飽滿,但是施過頭了,莢果熟過頭斷在土裡,成了有機肥,這是很危險的施肥法.它的理論根據,應是後期根瘤菌老化,給果莢施一點氮,果仁飽滿!!!,,我想…要看一下果莢跟莖連接的那一條蒂頭,如果很粗施施一點尿素應該不會斷吧…

つづく…..
左:黑金剛花生進入飽果期…
右:結莢期的黑金花生要多灌溉…

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